Land Surface forcing and feedbacks wiki


These are undergraduate level – probably 3rd year or honours level undergraduate but there is content in them that is so fundamental that they will be useful indefinitely.


  • Budyko, M.I., 1974, Climate and Life, Academic Press, New York, 508 pp.
  • Oke, T., Boundary Layer Climates, Routledge.
  • Monteith, J.L., and Unsworth, M.H., 1990, Principals of Environmental Physics, 2nd Ed. Edward Arnold, London, 241pp.
  • Shuttleworth, W. J. 2012, Terrestrial Hydrometeorology, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 448 pp.


Beyond the basics, its all about what exactly you are choosing to study. These three contain similar material but with quite a different focus. All are graduate level texts


  • Bonan, G., 2002, Ecological Climatology, Cambridge University Press.
  • Brutsaert, W., 2005, Hydrology, An Introduction, Cambridge University Press.
  • Eagleson, P.S., 2002, Ecohydrology, Cambridge University Press.
  • F.S. Chapin III, P.A. Matson, and H.A. Mooney. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology, Springer, 436pp.
  • Woodward, F. I., 1987, Climate and Plant Distribution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 174 pp.
  • Schlesinger, W. H., 1997, Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change, 2nd ed., Academic Press, San Diego, 588 pp.
  • Larcher, W., (1995) Physiological Plant Ecology, 3 ed., Springer, Berlin, 506 pp.


If you want to specialize beyond these, there are not many advanced graduate level texts. These are demanding, but are exceptionally good.


  • Hillel, D., 1998: Environmental Soil Physics. Academic Press, New York, 771 pp.
  • Stull, R.B., 1988, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Kluwer Academic Publishing, 666pp.



All books are by definition several years out of date. They provide structure and background that enable you to understand the latest science in context. So, you have to read papers too! Basic review papers of land surface modelling include:


  • Sellers, P. J. et al., 1997: Modelling the exchanges of energy, water and carbon between continents and the atmosphere, Science, 275, 502-509.
  • Arora, V., 2002, Modeling vegetation as a dynamic component in soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer Schemes and hydrological models, Reviews Geophysics, 40, 3.1-3.26.
  • Pitman A. J. 2003: The evolution of, and revolution in, land surface schemes designed for climate models, Int. J. Climatology, 23, 479-510.
  • Levis, S., 2010, Modeling vegetation and land use in models of the Earth System, WIRES, 1, 1-17, doi: 10.1002/wcc.83.
  • Betts, A.K., 2011, Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models, J. Adv. Modelling Earth Syst., 1, Art. #4, 18 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.4.
  • Wang, K. and R.E. Dickinson, 2012, A review of global terrestrial evapotranspiration: Observation, modeling, climatology, and climatic variability, Rev. Geophys., 50, RG2005, doi:10.1029/2011RG000373.
  • Berry, S.L., Farquhar, G. D., Roderick, M. L. (2005) Co-Evolution of Climate, Soil and Vegetation, In: Encyclopaedia of Hydrological Sciences, Part 1. Theory, Organization and Scale, edited by: Anderson, M. G., John Wiley & Sons.
  • Schimel, D.S., Braswell, B.H., Parton, W. J., (1997), Equilibration of the terrestrial water, nitrogen, and carbon cycles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94**, 8280-8283.
  • Donohue, R.J., Roderick, M.L., McVicar, T. R., (2007) On the importance of including vegetation dynamics in Budyko's hydrological model, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 11, 983-995.
  • Wang, YP, Trudinger, CT and Enting, IG. 2009 A review on applications of model-data fusion to studies of terrestrial carbon fluxes at different scales, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.07.009
  • Bonan, G. B. Forests and Climate Change: Forcings, Feedbacks, and the Climate Benefits of Forests. Science, 320, 1444. 10.1126/science.1155121
  • McAlpine, C. A., J. Skytus, J. G. Ryan, R. C. Deo, G. M. McKeon, H. A. McGowan, and S. R. Phinn. 2009 A continent under stress: interactions, feedbacks and risks associated with impact of modified land cover on Australia’s climate. Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01939.x


More advanced is:

  • Eagleson, P.S., 1978, Climate, soil and vegetation, Parts 1-7, Water Resources Research, 14, 705-776.
  • Seneviratne S.I. et al., 2010, Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: A review, Earth-Science Reviews, 99,125–161.


There are a large number of papers relating to CABLE. The starting point is:

  • Wang, Y. P. et al., 2011, Diagnosing errors in a land surface model (CABLE) in the time and frequency domains, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G01034, doi:10.1029/2010JG001385.


An excellent resource is the IPCC reports, once you are up to speed with the background.


There are also books that are mode integrative – that put land surface models into context with climate and NWP models.


  • Trenberth, K.E., 1992, Climate System Modeling, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 820pp.
  • Stensrud, D.J., 2007, Parameterization Schemes: Keys to Understanding Numerical Weather Prediction Models, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 480 pp.


Feel free to suggest papers of note that you think every student should read!

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