Extremes publications


  • Alexander, L. V., 2016: Global observed long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes: A review of progress and limitations in IPCC assessments and beyond. Weather and Climate Extremes, 11, 4-16. 10.1016/j.wace.2015.10.007.
  • Andrys, J., T. J. Lyons, and J. Kala, In Press: Evaluation of a WRF ensemble using GCM boundary conditions to quantify mean and extreme climate for the southwest of Western Australia (1970–1999). International Journal of Climatology. 10.1002/joc.4641.
  • Donat, M. G., A. D. King, J. T. Overpeck, L. V. Alexander, I. Durre, and D. J. Karoly, 2016: Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions. Climate Dynamics, 46, 413-426. 10.1007/s00382-015-2590-5.
  • Donat, M. G., A. L. Lowry, L. V. Alexander, P. A. Ogorman, and N. Maher, In Press: More extreme precipitation in the world's dry and wet regions. Nature Climate Change. 10.1038/nclimate2941.
  • Gallant, A. J. E. and S. C. Lewis, 2016: Stochastic and anthropogenic influences on repeated record-breaking temperature extremes in Australian spring of 2013 and 2014. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 1944-8007. 10.1002/2016GL067740.
  • Gilmore, J. B., J. P. Evans, S. Sherwood, M. Ekstrom, and J. Fei, In Press: Extreme precipitation in WRF during the Newcastle East Coast Low of 2007. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 10.1007/s00704-015-1551-6.
  • Hobday, A. J., L. V. Alexander, S. E. Perkins, D. A. Smale, S. C. Straub, E. C. J. Oliver, J. A. Benthuysen, M. T. Burrows, M. G. Donat, M. Feng, N. J. Holbrook, P. J. Moore, H. A. Scannell, A. Sen Gupta, and T. Wernberg, 2016: A hierarchical approach to defining marine heatwaves. Progress in Oceanography, 141, 227-238. 10.1016/j.pocean.2015.12.014.
  • Kim, Y.-H., S.-K. Min, X. Zhang, F. Zwiers, L. V. Alexander, M. G. Donat, and Y.-S. Tung, 2016: Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951–2010. Climate Dynamics, 46, 1769-1782. 10.1007/s00382-015-2674-2.
  • King, A. D., M. T. Black, S.-K. Min, E. M. Fischer, D. M. Mitchell, L. J. Harrington, and S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, In Press: Emergence of heat extremes attributable to anthropogenic influences. Geophysical Research Letters, 43. 10.1002/2015GL067448.
  • Lewis, S. C., In Press: Can public perceptions of Australian climate extremes be reconciled with the statistics of climate change? Weather and Climate Extremes. 10.1016/j.wace.2015.11.008.
  • Lewis, S. C., D. J. Karoly, A. D. King, S. E. Perkin, and M. G. Donat, In Press: Mechanisms explaining recent changes in Australia’s climate extremes. Climate Extremes: Patterns, Trends, and Mechanisms, American Geophysical Union.
  • Lorenz, R., D. Argueso, G. D. Markus, A. J. Pitman, B. van den Hurk, A. Berg, D. Lawrence, F. Cheruy, A. Duchame, S. Hagemann, A. Meier, P. C. D. Milly, and S. I. Seneviratne, 2016: Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on temperature and precipitation extremes in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research. 10.1002/2015JD024053.
  • Mcinnes, K., C. J. White, I. D. Haigh, M. A. Hemer, R. K. Hoeke, N. J. Holbrook, A. S. Keim, E. C. J. Oliver, R. Ranasinghe, K. J. E. Walsh, S. Westra, and R. Cox, In Press: Natural hazards in Australia: sea level and coastal extremes. Climate Change. 10.1007/s10584-016-1647-8.
  • Perkins, S. E., C. J. White, L. V. Alexander, D. Argueso, G. Boschat, T. Cowan, J. P. Evans, M. Ekstrom, E. C. J. Oliver, A. Phatak, and A. Purich, In Press: Natural hazards in Australia: heatwaves. Climate Change
  • Pepler, A., L. Alexander, J. Evans, and S. Sherwood, 2016: Zonal winds and southeast Australian rainfall in global and regional climate models. Climate Dynamics, 46, 123-133. 10.1007/s00382-015-2573-6.
  • Pepler, A. S., A. Di Luca, F. Ji, L. V. Alexander, J. P. Evans, and S. C. Sherwood, 2016: Projected changes in east Australian midlatitude cyclones during the 21st century. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 334-340. 10.1002/2015GL067267.
  • Stockhecke, M., A. Timmermann, R. Kipfer, G. H. Haug, O. Kwiecien, T. Friedrich, L. Menviel, T. Litt, N. Pcikarski, and F. S. Anselmetti, 2016: Millennial to orbital-scale variations of drought intensity in the Eastern Mediterranean. Quarternary Science Reviews, 133, 77-95. 10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.12.016.




  • Avila, F. B., S. Dong, K. P. Menang, J. Rajczak, M. Renom, M. G. Donat, and L. V. Alexander, 2015: Systematic investigation of gridding-related scaling effects on annual statistics of daily temperature and precipitation maxima: A case study for south-east Australia. Weather and Climate Extremes, 9, 6-16
  • Black, M. T., D. J. Karoly, and A. D. King, 2015: The contribution of anthropogenic forcing to the Adelaide and Melbourne heatwaves of January 2014. [in “Explaining Extreme Events of 2014 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, S144-S148
  • Contractor, S., L. V. Alexander, M. G. Donat, and N. Herold, 2015: How Well Do Gridded Datasets of Observed Daily Precipitation Compare over Australia? Advances in Meteorology, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/325718.
  • Dittus, A. J., D. J. Karoly, S. C. Lewis, and L. V. Alexander, 2015: A Multiregion Assessment of Observed Changes in the Areal Extent of Temperature and Precipitation Extremes. Journal of Climate, 28, 9206-9220. http://http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00753.1.
  • Gibson, P. B., P. Uotila, S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, L. V. Alexander, and A. Pitman, In Press: Evaluating synoptic systems in the CMIP5climate models over the Australian region. Climate Dynamics. 10.1007/s00382-015-2961-y.
  • Goldie, J., S. C. Sherwood, D. Green, and L. Alexander, 2015: Temperature and humidity effects on hospital morbidity in Darwin, Australia. Annals of Global Health, 81, 333-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2015.07.003.
  • Green, D., H. Bambrick, P. Tait, J. Goldie, R. Schultz, L. Webb, L. Alexander, and A. Pitman, 2015: Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory. International Journal of Environmental Research on Public Health, 12, 15352-15365. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121214988.
  • Hirsch, A. L., A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat, 2015: Modulation of land use change impacts on temperature extremes via land-atmosphere coupling over Australia. Earth Interactions, 19, 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/EI-D-15-0011.1.
  • King, A. D., M. T. Black, D. J. Karoly, and M. G. Donat, 2015: Increased likelihood of Brisbane G20 heat event due to anthropogenic climate change. [in “Explaining Extreme Events of 2014 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, S141-S144
  • King, A. D., M. G. Donat, L. V. Alexander, and D. Karoly, 2015: The ENSO-Australian rainfall teleconnection in reanalysis and CMIP5. Climate Dynamics, 44, 2623-2635. http://10.1007/s00382-014-2159-8.
  • King, A. D., M. G. Donat, E. M. Fischer, E. Hawkins, K. Alexander, D. J. Karoly, A. J. Dittus, S. C. Lewis, and S. E. Perkins, 2015: The timing of anthropogenic emergence in simulated climate extremes. Environmental Research Letters, 10, 094015
  • King, A. D., G. J. van Oldenborgh, D. J. Karoly, S. C. Lewis, and H. M. Cullen, 2015: Attribution of the record high Central England Temperature of 2014 to anthropogenic influences. Environmental Research Letters, 10. http://10.1088/1748-9326/10/5/054002.
  • Lewis, S. C. and D. J. Karoly, 2015: Are estimates of anthropogenic and natural influences on Australia’s extreme 2010–2012 rainfall model-dependent? Climate Dynamics, 45, 679-695. http://10.1007/s00382-014-2283-5.
  • Lewis, S. C. and A. D. King, 2015: Dramatically increased rate of observed hot record breaking in recent Australian temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 7776-7784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065793.
  • Otto, F. E. L., C. A. S. Coelho, A. D. King, E. Coughlan de Perez, Y. Wada, G. J. van Oldenborgh, R. Haarsma, K. Haustein, P. Uhe, M. Aalst, J. A. Aravequia, W. Almedida, and H. Cullen, 2015: Factors other than climate change, main driver of 2014/15 water shortage in Southeast Brazil. [in “Explaining Extreme Events of 2014 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, S35-S40
  • Perkins, S. E., 2015: Increased risk of the 2014 Australian May heatwave due to anthropogenic activity [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2014 from a Climate Perspective"]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00074.1.
  • Perkins, S. E., 2015: A review on the scientific understanding of heatwaves—Their measurement, driving mechanisms, and changes at the global scale. Journal of Atmospheric Research, 164, 242-267. http://10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.05.014.
  • Pepler, A. S., A. Di Luca, F. Ji, L. V. Alexander, J. P. Evans, and S. C. Sherwood, 2015: Impact of identification method on the inferred characteristics and variability of Australian East Coast Lows. Monthly Weather Review, 143, 864-877. http://10.1175/MWR-D-14-00188.1.
  • Pepler, A. S., L. Diaz, C. Prodhomme, A. Kumar, and F. Doblas-Reyes, 2015: The ability of a multi-model seasonal forecasting ensemble to forecast the seasonal distribution of daily extremes. Weather and Climate Extremes, 9, 68-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2015.06.005.
  • Reeder, M. J., T. Spengler, and R. Musgrave, 2015: Rossby waves, extreme fronts, and wildfires in southeastern Australia. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 2015-2023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063125.
  • Ummenhofer, C. C., A. S. Gupta, M. H. England, A. S. Tashetto, P. R. Briggs, and M. R. Raupach, 2015: How did ocean warming affect Australian rainfall extremes during the 2010/2011 La Nina event? Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 9942-9951. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065948.
  • Walsh, K. J. E., S. J. Camargo, G. A. Vecchi, A. S. Daloz, J. Elsner, K. Emanuel, M. Horn, Y.-K. Lim, M. Roberts, C. Patricola, E. Scoccimarro, A. H. Sobel, S. Strazzo, G. Villarini, M. Wehner, M. Zhao, J. P. Kossin, T. LaRow, K. Oouchi, S. Schubert, H. Wang, J. Bacmeister, P. Chang, F. Chauvin, C. Jablonowski, A. Kumar, H. Murakami, T. Ose, K. A. Reed, R. Saravanan, Y. Yamada, C. M. Zarzycki, P. L. Vidale, J. A. Jonas, and N. Henderson, 2015: Hurricanes and climate: the U.S. CLIVAR working group on hurricanes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96, 997-1017. http://10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00242.1.
  • Yin, H., M. G. Donat, L. V. Alexander, and Y. Sun, 2015: Multi-dataset comparison of gridded observed temperature and precipitation extremes over China. International Journal of climatology, 35, 2809-2827. http://10.1002/joc.4174.







  • Allen, J. T. and D. J. Karoly, 2014: A climatology of Australian severe thunderstorm environments 1979–2011: inter-annual variability and ENSO influence. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 81-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3667
  • Allen, J. T., D. J. Karoly, and K. J. Walsh, 2014: Future Australian severe thunderstorm environments, Part I:  A novel evaluation and climatology of convective parameters from two climate models for the late 20th century. Journal of Climate, 27, 3827-3847.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00425.1
  • Allen, J. T., D. J. Karoly, and K. J. Walsh, 2014: Future Australian severe thunderstorm environments, Part II: The influence of a strongly warming climate on convective environments.Journal of Climate, 27, 3848-3868. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00426.1
  • Ashcroft, L., J. Gergis, and D. J. Karoly, 2014: A historical climate dataset for southeastern Australia, 1788–1859. Geoscience Data Journal, 1, 158-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.19
  • Cowan, T., A. Purich, S. E. Perkins, A. B. Pezza, G. Boschat, and K. Sadler, 2014: More Frequent, Longer, and Hotter Heat Waves for Australia in the Twenty-First Century. Journal of Climate, 27, 5851-5871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00092.1
  • Cowan, T., A. Purich, G. Boschat, and S. E. Perkins, 2014: Future projections of Australian heat wave number and intensity based on CMIP5 models. Bulletin of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, 27, 134-139. http://www.amos.org.au/documents/item/731
  • Dittus, A. J., D. J. Karoly, S. C. Lewis, and L. V. Alexander, 2014: An investigation of some unexpected frost day trends in southern Australia. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal. http://www.bom.gov.au/amoj/docs/2014/dittus.pdf
  • Donat, M. G., T. C. Peterson, M. Brunet, A. D. King, M. Almazroui, R. K. Kolli, D. Boucherf, A. Y. Al-Mulla, A. Y. Nour, A. A. Aly, T. A. A. Nada, M. M. Semawi, H. A. A. Dashti, T. G. Salhab, K. I. El Fadli, M. K. Muftah, S. D. Eida, W. Badi, F. Driouech, K. E. Rhaz, M. J. Y. Abubaker, A. S. Ghulam, A. S. Erayah, M. B. Mansour, W. O. Alabdouli, J. S. A. Dhanhani, and M. N. Al Shekaili, 2014: Changes in extreme temperature and precipitation in the Arab region: long-term trends and variability related to ENSO and NAO. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 581-592.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3707
  • Donat, M. G., J. Sillmann, S. Wild, L. V. Alexander, T. Lippmann, and F. Zwiers, 2014: Consistency of temperature and precipitation extremes across various global gridded in situ and reanalysis data sets. Journal of Climate, 27, 5019-5035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00405.1
  • Dunn, R. J. H., M. G. Donat, and L. V. Alexander, 2014: Investigating uncertainties in global gridded datasets of climate extremes. Climate of the Past, 10, 2171-2199.http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/cp-10-2171-2014
  • Gallant, A. J. E., D. J. Karoly, and K. L. Gleason, 2014: Consistent Trends in a Modified Climate Extremes Index in the U.S.A., Europe and Australia. Journal of Climate, 27, 1379-1394.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00783.1
  • King, A. D., N. P. Klingaman, L. V. Alexander, M. G. Donat, N. C. Jourdain, and P. Maher, 2014: Extreme rainfall variability in Australia: Patterns, drivers, and predictability. Journal of Climate,27, 6035-6050. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00715.1
  • King, A. D., D. J. Karoly, M. G. Donat, and L. V. Alexander, 2014: Climate Change turns Australia's 2013 Big Dry into a Year of Record-Breaking Heat [in "Explaining Extreme Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective"]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95, S41-S45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-95.9.S1.1
  • Lewis, S. C., and D. J. Karoly, 2014: Assessment of forced responses of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) version 1.3 in CMIP5 historical detection and attribution experiments. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal, 64,87-102. http://www.bom.gov.au/amoj/docs/2014/lewis.pdf
  • Lorenz, R., A. J. Pitman, M. G. Donat, A. L. Hirsch, J. Kala, E. A. Kowalczyk, R. M. Law, and J. Srbinovsky, 2014: Representation of climate extreme indices in the ACCESS1.3b coupled atmosphere–land surface model. Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 545-567.http://www.dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-545-2014 (open access)
  • McGree, S., K. Whan, D. Jones, L. V. Alexander, A. Imielska, H. Diamond, E. Ene, S. Finaulahi, K. Inape, L. Jacklick, R. Kumar, V. Laurent, H. Malala, P. Malsale, T. Moniz, M. Ngemaes, A. Peltier, A. Porteous, R. Pulehetoa-Mitiepo, S. Seuseu, E. Skilling, L. Tahani, F. Teimitsi, U. Toorua, and M. Vaiimene, 2014: An updated assessment of trends and variability in total and extreme rainfall in the western Pacific. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 2775-2791.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3874
  • Oliver, E. C. J., S. J. Wotherspoon, and N. Holbrook, 2014: Projected Tasman Sea extremes in sea surface temperature through the 21st Century. Journal of Climate, 27, 1980-1988.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00259.1
  • Oliver, E. C. J., S. J. Wotherspoon, and N. J. Holbrook, 2014: Estimating extremes from global ocean and climate models: A Bayesian hierarchical model approach. Progress in Oceanography,122, 77-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2013.12.004
  • Parker, T. J., G. J. Berry, M. J. Reeder, and N. Nicholls, 2014: Modes of Climate Variability and Heat Waves in Victoria, Southeastern Australia. Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 6926-6934.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GL061736
  • Perkins, S. E., S. C. Lewis, A. D. King, and L. V. Alexander, 2014: Increased simulated risk of the hot Australian summer of 2012/13 due to anthropogenic activity as measured by heat wave frequency and intensity [in “Explaining Extreme Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective”]Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95, s34-s37.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2014BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
  • Purich, A., T. Cowan, W. Cai, P. Uotila, P. van Rensch, A. Pezza, G. Boschat, and S. E. Perkins, 2014: Australian heat waves: a CMIP5 analysis. Journal of Climate, 27, 7807-7829.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00098.1
  • Seneviratne, S. I., M. G. Donat, M. B, and L. V. Alexander, 2014: No pause in increase of hot temperature extremes. Nature Climate Change, 4, 161-163.http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2145
  • Sillmann, J., V. V. Kharin, F. W. Zwiers, X. Zhang, D. Bronaugh, and M. G. Donat, 2014: Evaluating model-simulated variability in temperature extremes using modified percentile indices.International Journal of climatology, 34, 3304-3311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3899
  • Westra, S., H. J. Fowler, J. P. Evans, L. V. Alexander, P. Berg, F. Johnson, E. J. Kendon, G. Lenderink, and N. M. Roberts, 2014: Future changes to the intensity and frequency of short-duration extreme rainfall. Reviews of Geophysics, 52, 522-555.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014RG000464
  • Whan, K., L. V. Alexander, A. Imielska, S. McGree, D. Jones, E. Ene, S. Finaulahi, K. Inape, L. Jacklick, R. Kumar, V. Laurent, H. Malala, P. Malsale, R. Pulehetoa-Mitiepo, M. Ngemaes, A. Peltier, A. Porteous, S. Seuseu, E. Skilling, L. Tahani, U. Toorua, and M. Vaiimene, 2014: Trends and variability of temperature extremes in the tropical Western Pacific. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 2585-2603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3861
  • Zheng, F., S. Westra, M. Leonard, and S. A. Sisson, 2014: Modeling dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge to estimate coastal flooding risk. Water Resources Research,50, 2050-2071. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013WR014616



  • Lewis, S. C. and D. J. Karoly, 2014: 'Attributing Australia’s record warm summer 2012/2013 and record warm calendar year 2013 to human influences' In WMO statement on the status of the global climate in 2013, 20-21 pp.




  • Black, M. T. and A. B. Pezza, 2013: A universal, broad-environment energy conversion signature of explosive cyclones. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 452-457.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/grl.50114
  • Christidis, N., P. A. Stott, D. J. Karoly, and A. Ciavarella, 2013: An attribution study of the heavy rainfall over Eastern Australia in March 2012. [in “Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94, s58-s61.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00085.1
  • Donat, M. G., L. V. Alexander, H. Yang, I. Durre, R. Vose, and J. Caesar, 2013: Global land-based datasets for monitoring climatic extremes. . Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94, 997-1006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00109 (open access)
  • Donat, M. G., L. V. Alexander, H. Yang, I. Durre, R. Vose, R. Dunn, K. Willett, E. Aguilar, M. Brunet, J. Caesar, B. Hewitson, C. Jacks, A. M. G. Klein Tank, A. Kruger, J. Marengo, T. C. Peterson, M. Renom, C. Oria Rojas, M. Rusticucci, J. Salinger, S. Sekele, A. Srivastava, B. Trwein, C. Villarroel, L. Vincent, P. Zhai, X. Zhang, and S. Kitching, 2013: Updated analyses of temperature and precipitation extreme indices since the beginning of the twentieth century: The HadEX2 dataset. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 118, 2098-2118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50150 (open access)
  • King, A. D., L. V. Alexander, and M. G. Donat, 2013: The efficacy of using gridded data to examine extreme rainfall characteristics: a case study for Australia. International Journal of Climatology, 33, 2376-2387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3588
  • King, A. D., L. V. Alexander, and M. G. Donat, 2013: Asymmetry in the response of Eastern Australia extreme rainfall to low-frequency Pacific variability. Geophysical Research Letters,40, 2271-2277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/grl.50427 (open access)
  • King, A. D., S. C. Lewis, S. E. Perkins, L. V. Alexander, M. G. Donat, D. Karoly, and M. T. Black, 2013: Limited Evidence of Anthropogenic Influence on the 2011-12 Extreme Rainfall over Southeast Australia. [in “Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94, S55-S58.http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00085.1
  • Lewis, S. C. and D. J. Karoly, 2013: Anthropogenic contributions to Australia's record summer temperatures of 2013. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 3705-3709.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/grl.50673
  • Parker, T. J., G. J. Berry, and M. J. Reeder, 2013: The influence of tropical cyclones on heat waves in Southeastern Australia. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 6264-6270.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058257
  • Perkins, S. E., A. J. Pitman, and S. A. Sisson, 2013: Systematic differences in future 20 year temperature extremes in AR4 model projections over Australia as a function of model skill.International Journal of Climatology, 33, 1153-1167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3500 (open access)
  • Ramsay, H. A., 2013: The effects of imposed stratospheric cooling on the maximum intensity of tropical cyclones in axisymmetric radiative-convective equilibrium. Journal of Climate, 26,9977-9985. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00195.1
  • Skansi, M. d. l. M., M. Brunet, J. Sigro, E. Aguilar, J. A. A. Groening, O. J. Bentancur, Y. R. C. Geier, R. L. C. Amaya, H. Jacome, A. M. Ramos, C. O. Rojas, A. M. Pasten, S. S. Mitro, C. V. Jimenez, R. Martinez, L. V. Alexander, and P. D. Jones, 2013: Warming and wetting signals emerging from analysis of changes in climate extreme indices over South America.Global and Planetary Change, 100, 295-307.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.11.004


Book Chapters

  • Whetton, P., D. Karoly, I. Watterson, L. Webb, F. Drost, D. Kirono, and K. McInnes, 2013: Australia’s climate in a four degree world. in Four Degrees of Global Warming: Australia in a Hot World, P. Christoff, Ed., Taylor & Francis Group, 17-32.
  • Zwiers, F. W., L. V. Alexander, G. C. Hegerl, T. R. Knutson, J. P. Kossin, P. Naveau, N. Nicholls, C. Schar, S. Seneviratne, and X. Zhang, 2013: Climate Extremes: Challenges in Estimating and Understanding Recent Changes in the Frequency and Intensity of Extreme Climate and Weather Events. Climate Science for Serving Society, G. R. Asrar and J. W. Hurrell, Eds., Springer, 339-389.






  • Alexander, L. and C. Tebaldi, 2012: Climate and weather extremes: observations, modelling and projections. The Future of the World's Climate, 2nd ed. A. Henderson-Sellers and K. McGuffie, Eds., Elsevier, 253-288.
  • Arblaster, J. M. and L. V. Alexander, 2012: The impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on maximum temperature extremes. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L20702.
  • Avila, F. B., A. J. Pitman, M. G. Donat, L. V. Alexander, and G. Abramowitz, 2012: Climate model simulated changes in temperature extremes due to land cover change. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, D04108.
  • Badlan, R. L., T. P. Lane, G. A. Mills, and S. Caine, 2012: Mesoscale modelling of two 'drying events': governing processes and implications for fire danger. Australian Meteorological & Oceanographic Journal, 62, 143-156.
  • Donat, M. G. and L. V. Alexander, 2012: The shifting probability distribution of global daytime and night-time temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L14707.
  • Perkins, S. E., L. V. Alexander, and J. R. Nairn, 2012: Increasing frequency, intensity and duration of observed global heatwaves and warm spells. Geophysical Research Letters, 39,L20714.
  • Seneviratne, S. I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C. M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. P. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, X. Zhang, and C. A. L. Alexander), 2012: Changes in Climate Extremes and their Impacts on the Natural Physical Environment. . IPCC.



  • Alexander, L. Extreme heat rooted in dry soils. Nature Geoscience 4, 12-13, doi:doi:10.1038/ngeo1045 (2011).
  • Alexander, L., Wang, X., Wan, H. & Trewin, B. Significant decline in storminess over South-East Australia since the late 19th Century. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal, 23-30 (2011).
  • Allen, J. T., Karoly, D. J. & Mills, G. A. A severe thunderstorm climatology for Australia and associated thunderstorm environments. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal61, 143-158 (2011).
  • Caesar, J., L. Alexander, B. Trewin, K. Tse-Ring, L. Sorany, V. Vuniyayawa, N. Keosavang, A. Shimana, M. M. Htay, J. Karmacharya, D. A. Jayasinghearachchi, J. Sakkamart, E. Soares, L. T. Hung, L. T. Thoung, C. T. Hue, N. T. T. Dung, P. V. Hung, H. D. Coung, N. M. Coung and S. Sirabaha. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes over the Indo-Pacific region from 1971 to 2005. International Journal of Climatology 31, 791-801, doi:10.1002/joc.2118 (2011).
  • Donat, M. G., D. Renggli, S. Wild, L. V. Alexander, G. C. Leckebusch and U. Ulbrich.Reanalysis suggests long-term upward trends in European storminess since 1871. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L14703, doi:10.1029/2011gl047995 (2011).
  • Zhang, X., L. Alexander, G. C. Hegerl, P. Jones, A. K. Tank, T. C. Peterson, B. Trewin and F. W. Zwiers. Indices for monitoring changes in extremes based on daily temperature and precipitation data. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 2, 851-870, doi:10.1002/wcc.147 (2011).


Conference papers

  • Allen, J., Karoly D.J. An assessment of Australian severe thunderstorm environments 1989-2010. 6th European Conference on Severe Storms    (Mallorca, Spain, 2011).
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